Hofstra University - 2016

Institution Information

Contact Information

Institution's Mailing Address

Institution Name: Hofstra University
Mailing Address: Department of Engineering
133 Hofstra University
City: Hempstead
State: NY
Postal Code: 11549
Country: United States
Phone 516-463-5544
Fax: 516-463-4939
Website: http://www.hofstra.edu/engineering

Head of Institution

Stuart Rabinowitz, J.D.
President
Hofstra University
207 West Wing Library
123 Hofstra University
Hempstead, NY 11549
Phone: 516-463-6800
Fax: 516-463-6096
prsjms@hofstra.edu

Undergraduate Admission Inquiries

Jessica Eads
Vice President of Enrollment Management and Dean of Admissions and Financial Aid
Admissions
Hofstra University
102 Bernon Hall
Admissions Center
Hempstead, NY 11549
Phone: 516-463-6710
Fax: 516-463-5100
Jessica.L.Eads@hofstra.edu

Institution Information

General Information


Type of institution: PRIVATE
Academic Year: SEMESTERS
Setting of Main Engineering Campus SUBURBAN

Main Campus Information

Is the main campus located in a city with a population greater than 100,000?: No
Name of this city, or if no, the name of the nearest city of any size?: New York City
This city's population (approx.): 8,008,280
Distance from Main Campus: 25

Total Enrollment

Total Undergraduate enrollment: 6,899
Total Graduate enrollment: 3,124
Total Professional and other enrollment: 1,122

Non-Engineering Degree Granting Colleges

Business, Communications, Education, Fine arts, Law, Liberal arts, Medicine, Natural sciences, Nursing, Health Professions and Human Services, Honor's College, Government, Public Policy and International Affairs , Physician Assistant Studies

Institution Information

General Admissions

Entrance Requirements and Recommendations

Requirements

Hofstra is test optional, standardized test scores are not required for most programs with the exception of home schooled and international applicants.

Recommendations

Engineering students are expected to present four years of mathematics, one year of chemistry and one year of physics.

Engineering Information

Head of Engineering

Head of Engineering

Sina Rabbany
Dean
School of Engineering and Applied Science
Hofstra University
103A Weed Hall
133 Hofstra University
Hempstead, NY 11549
Phone: 516-463-6672
Fax: 516-463-4939
eggsyr@hofstra.edu

Engineering Information

Engineering Degrees Offered

Types of Engineering Degrees

Bachelor's:B.A, B.S.
Master's:M.S. with thesis, M.S. without thesis, but with project or report

Computer Science Degrees Awarded Outside the College/School of Engineering

Engineering Information

Engineering Departments

Engineering Department(s) Degree Granting Level Department Chair Discipline
Computer Engineering Undergraduate Krishnan Pillaipakkamnatt Computer Engineering
Computer Science Both Krishnan Pillaipakkamnatt Computer Science (inside engineering)
Electrical Engineering Undergraduate Richard Puerzer Electrical Engineering
Engineering Science Undergraduate Richard Puerzer Engr. Science and Engr. Physics
Industrial Engineering Undergraduate Richard Puerzer Industrial/Manufacturing/Systems Engineering
Mechanical Engineering Undergraduate Richard Puerzer Mechanical Engineering

Engineering Information

Research Centers

No listings found.

Engineering Information

Degree Programs

Bachelor's Degree Program(s)

Engineering Department(s) Bachelor's Degree Program(s) Discipline
Computer Engineering Computer Engineering (B.S.) Computer Engineering
Computer Science Computer Science (B.A.) (B.S.) Computer Science (inside engineering)
Electrical Engineering Electrical Engineering (B.S.) Electrical Engineering
Engineering Science Engineering Science (B.E.) (B.A.) Engr. Science and Engr. Physics
Industrial Engineering Industrial Engineering (B.S.) Industrial/Manufacturing/Systems Engineering
Mechanical Engineering Mechanical Engineering (B.S.) Mechanical Engineering

Master's Degree Program(s)

Engineering Department(s) Master's Degree Program(s) Discipline
Computer Science Computer Science (M.S.) Computer Science (inside engineering)

Doctoral Degree Program(s)

No listings found.

Engineering Information

Areas of Expertise

Engineering Departments Areas of Expertise
Computer Engineering
  1. Networking
  2. Security and Privacy
Computer Science
  1. Logic and Programming Languages
  2. Data Mining
  3. Neuro-Computing
  4. Artificial Intelligence
  5. Computational Algebra
  6. Software Engineering
  7. Computer Vision
Electrical Engineering
  1. Microwave remote sensing
  2. Digital signal processing
  3. Optical fiber communication
  4. Ultrasound
Engineering Science
  1. Cardiovascular dynamics
  2. Structural engineering
  3. Environmental modeling
Industrial Engineering
  1. Operations research
Mechanical Engineering
  1. Non-destructive testing
  2. Supersonic aerodynamics
  3. Fluid-structure interaction
  4. Applied thermodynamics
  5. HVAC design
  6. Robotics

Engineering Information

Societies

Honor Societies

National Groups

  • Eta Kappa Nu Electrical Engineering Honor Society
  • Theta Tau

Student Organizations

National Groups

  • Am. Inst. of Aeronautics and Astronautics
  • Am. Soc. of Civil Engineers
  • Am. Soc. of Mechanical Engineers
  • Biomedical Engineering Society
  • Inst. of Industrial Engineers
  • Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
  • National Society of Black Engineers
  • Soc. for Automotive Engineering
  • Soc. of Hispanic Professional Engineers
  • Soc. of Women Engineers

Engineering Information

Support Programs

College's Under-Represented Student Groups

National Groups

  • National Society of Black Engineers
  • Society of Hispanic Professional Engineers
  • Society of Women Engineers

Other Student Support Programs

Freshman orientation, mentoring programs. University and Department run tutorial programs free of charge. University resources for students with disabilities. Close interaction between engineering faculty advisors and students.

Engineering Information

Student Projects

Student Design Projects Description

All B.S.E.E., B.S.M.E. and B.E.E.S. students complete a two-semester capstone design sequence. Typical projects include ASME, AIAA, IEEE national design competitions; also comprehensive structural design, HVAC designs for large buildings, environmental site analyses, biomedical experiment design, fiber optic communications or digital systems design. Exceptional students are also encouraged to do individual projects leading to publication in scientific journals.

Engineering Information

College Description

Engineering College Description and Special Characteristics

All degree programs are administered by the Department of Engineering within the School of Engineering and Applied Science. With seven different programs, upper level classes are small, averaging 10 to 18 students. All programs are available for full- and part-time students, and can be completed on an evening schedule for part-time students.

Engineering Information

Engineering Faculty & Research

Teaching, Tenure-Track View Gender/Ethnicity Profiles

Engineering Department(s) Full Professors Assoc. Professors Assistant Professors Program Total
Computer Engineering 2 0 0 2
Computer Science 3 3 3 9
Electrical Engineering 3 1 0 4
Engineering Science 0 1 4 5
Industrial Engineering 0 1 0 1
Mechanical Engineering 2 1 2 5
Totals: 10 7 9 26

Teaching, Non-Tenure-Track

Engineering Department(s) FT Instr. & Other Teach. Personnel PT Instr. & Other Teach. Personnel Total Personnel FTE of all PT Teach. Personnel
Computer Engineering 0 0 0 0.00
Computer Science 0 11 11 0.00
Electrical Engineering 0 1 1 0.00
Engineering Science 0 4 4 0.00
Industrial Engineering 0 1 1 0.00
Mechanical Engineering 0 2 2 0.00
Totals: 0 19 19 0.00

Non-Teaching, Research

Engineering Department(s) Non-Teach. FT Research Personnel Non-Teach. PT Research Personnel Total Personnel FTE of all PT Non-Teach. Research Personnel
Computer Engineering 0 0 0 0.00
Computer Science 0 0 0 0.00
Electrical Engineering 0 0 0 0.00
Engineering Science 0 0 0 0.00
Industrial Engineering 0 0 0 0.00
Mechanical Engineering 0 0 0 0.00
Totals: 0 0 0 0.00

Teaching, Tenure-Track: Gender/Ethnicity Profiles

  • American Indian or Alaska Native (Am Ind): A person having origins in any of the original peoples of North and South America (including Central America), and who maintains tribal affiliation or community attachment.
  • Asian: A person having origins in any of the original peoples of the Far East, Southeast Asia, or the Indian subcontinent including, for example, Cambodia, China, India, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Pakistan, the Philippine Islands, Thailand, and Vietnam.
  • Black or African American (B/AfrA): A person having origins in any of the black racial groups of Africa. Terms such as "Haitian" or "Negro" can be used in addition to "Black or African American."
  • Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander (Haw): A person having origins in any of the original peoples of Hawaii, Guam, Samoa, or other Pacific Islands.
  • Hispanic or Latino (Hisp): A person of Cuban, Mexican, Puerto Rican, South or Central American, or other Spanish culture or origin, regardless of race. The term, "Spanish origin," can be used in addition to "Hispanic or Latino."
  • White: A person having origins in any of the original peoples of Europe, the Middle East, or North Africa.

Teaching, Tenure-Track: Full Professor Profiles

Engineering Department(s) Unknown Hispanic American Indian Asian Black Pacific Islander White Two or more Total Personnel
M F M F M F M F M F M F M F M F M F
Computer Engineering 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1
Computer Science 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 2 1
Electrical Engineering 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 3 0
Engineering Science 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Industrial Engineering 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Mechanical Engineering 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 2 0
Totals: 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 5 2 0 0 8 2

Teaching, Tenure-Track: Associate Professor Profiles

Engineering Department(s) Unknown Hispanic American Indian Asian Black Pacific Islander White Two or more Total Personnel
M F M F M F M F M F M F M F M F M F
Computer Engineering 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Computer Science 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 2 1
Electrical Engineering 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0
Engineering Science 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1
Industrial Engineering 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0
Mechanical Engineering 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1
Totals: 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 3 0 0 4 3

Teaching, Tenure-Track: Assistant Professor Profiles

Engineering Department(s) Unknown Hispanic American Indian Asian Black Pacific Islander White Two or more Total Personnel
M F M F M F M F M F M F M F M F M F
Computer Engineering 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Computer Science 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 2 1
Electrical Engineering 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Engineering Science 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 4 0
Industrial Engineering 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Mechanical Engineering 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 2 0
Totals: 0 0 1 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 1 0 4 1 0 0 8 1

Undergraduate

Admissions/Transfers

Undergraduate Admission to the College of Engineering

Students are accepted into Hofstra University based on general admissions criteria. The department of Engineering does not have separate admissions criteria.

Undergraduate Admission to an Engineering Department

Same as admission to university. General inquiries about preparation for engineering studies should be directed to undergraduate engineering admissions contact person at (516) 463-6021.

Residency Requirements

At least 15 semester hours in the major field of study and the last 30 hours (which need not include the full 15 in the major) must be completed at Hofstra.

Admissions Requirements for Transfer Students

Transfer students with less than 24 cr. of college work are normally expected to meet the freshman admission requirements. Credits from 2 yr. colleges may not exceed 69. A grade point average of at least 2.0 for all prior course work is normally required. Courses with grades below C- do not normally transfer credit.

Number of Transfer Students from:

A two-year community junior college where they were full-time students: 15
A four-year college or university where they were full-time students: 23

Undergraduate

Expenses & Financial Aid

Student Group(s): All Students

Undergraduate Group 1
Tuition & Fees: $41,100
Room & Board: $14,460
Books & Supplies: $1,000
Other Expenses: $3,224
Estimated avg. course load per term: 15
Does your institute have any special programs or fee structures for the expenses category "All Students"?: No

Financial Aid Information

Required financial aid forms

Federal Tax Return Forms (IRS), Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA)

Undergraduate

New Applicants

New Undergraduate Applicants

A. Number of undergraduate applicants to the engineering college: 4,048
B. Of those in (A), how many were offered admission? 2,129
C. Of those in (B), how many were enrolled in the fall? 166
Percentage of entering students (excluding transfer students) ranked in the top quarter (25%) of their high schools: 73%

Newly Enrolled Test Scores

Scores Reflect 75th to 25th percentile

SAT 75th 25th
Math Range: 670 570
Reading Range: 640 540
Writing Range:
Combined Range: 1270 1130
ACT 75th 25th
Math Range:
Composite Range: 30 26

Undergraduate

Enrollments by Class

Undergraduate Engr. Programs Fresh
1st Year
Soph
2nd Year
Junior
3rd Year
Senior
4th/5th Year
Full Time Total Part Time Total
Computer Engineering (B.S.) 15 10 10 4 39 3
Computer Science (B.A.) (B.S.) 67 48 36 25 176 5
Electrical Engineering (B.S.) 16 10 13 18 57 3
Engineering Science (B.E.) (B.A.) 40 46 42 32 160 9
Industrial Engineering (B.S.) 11 7 6 9 33 0
Mechanical Engineering (B.S.) 48 35 33 45 161 6
Totals: 197 156 140 133 626 26

Freshmen

Group Nonresident Alien Unknown Hispanic American Indian Asian Black Pacific Islander White Two or More Total
  FT PT FT PT FT PT FT PT FT PT FT PT FT PT FT PT FT PT FT PT
Computer Engineering (B.S.)
Men 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 2 1 0 0 0 0 8 0 0 0 13 1
Women 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0
Computer Science (B.A.) (B.S.)
Men 4 0 1 0 7 1 0 0 10 0 5 0 0 0 26 0 3 0 56 1
Women 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 7 0 0 0 11 0
Electrical Engineering (B.S.)
Men 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 3 0 0 0 9 0 0 0 15 0
Women 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0
Engineering Science (B.E.) (B.A.)
Men 1 0 1 0 2 0 0 0 2 1 1 0 0 0 14 0 2 0 23 1
Women 1 0 0 0 4 0 0 0 4 0 4 0 1 0 2 0 1 0 17 0
Industrial Engineering (B.S.)
Men 2 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 7 0
Women 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 4 0
Mechanical Engineering (B.S.)
Men 5 0 1 0 5 0 0 0 2 0 9 0 0 0 19 0 2 0 43 0
Women 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 5 0
Totals: 17 0 3 0 26 1 0 0 23 2 25 0 1 0 94 0 8 0 197 3

Sophomores

Group Nonresident Alien Unknown Hispanic American Indian Asian Black Pacific Islander White Two or More Total
  FT PT FT PT FT PT FT PT FT PT FT PT FT PT FT PT FT PT FT PT
Computer Engineering (B.S.)
Men 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 9 0
Women 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0
Computer Science (B.A.) (B.S.)
Men 4 0 2 0 7 0 0 0 7 0 2 0 0 0 18 2 1 0 41 2
Women 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 4 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 7 0
Electrical Engineering (B.S.)
Men 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 1 0 4 0 0 0 9 1
Women 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0
Engineering Science (B.E.) (B.A.)
Men 1 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 3 0 1 0 0 0 17 0 1 0 26 0
Women 2 0 1 0 3 0 1 0 1 0 3 0 0 0 8 0 1 0 20 0
Industrial Engineering (B.S.)
Men 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 5 0
Women 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0
Mechanical Engineering (B.S.)
Men 2 0 3 0 1 0 0 0 5 0 2 0 0 0 14 1 3 0 30 1
Women 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 5 0
Totals: 16 1 8 0 17 0 1 0 24 0 10 0 1 0 73 3 6 0 156 4

Juniors

Group Nonresident Alien Unknown Hispanic American Indian Asian Black Pacific Islander White Two or More Total
  FT PT FT PT FT PT FT PT FT PT FT PT FT PT FT PT FT PT FT PT
Computer Engineering (B.S.)
Men 1 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 9 1
Women 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0
Computer Science (B.A.) (B.S.)
Men 6 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 2 0 1 0 0 0 19 0 0 0 28 1
Women 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 2 0 2 0 8 0
Electrical Engineering (B.S.)
Men 0 0 2 0 3 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 12 0
Women 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0
Engineering Science (B.E.) (B.A.)
Men 1 0 3 0 3 0 0 0 3 1 3 0 0 0 14 0 0 0 27 1
Women 2 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 4 0 1 0 15 0
Industrial Engineering (B.S.)
Men 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 2 0
Women 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 4 0
Mechanical Engineering (B.S.)
Men 1 1 0 0 7 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 17 0 1 0 28 2
Women 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 0 0 0 5 0
Totals: 13 1 5 1 21 1 0 0 13 2 8 0 1 0 75 0 4 0 140 5

Seniors

Group Nonresident Alien Unknown Hispanic American Indian Asian Black Pacific Islander White Two or More Total
  FT PT FT PT FT PT FT PT FT PT FT PT FT PT FT PT FT PT FT PT
Computer Engineering (B.S.)
Men 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 4 1
Women 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Computer Science (B.A.) (B.S.)
Men 1 0 0 0 6 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 5 1 1 0 18 1
Women 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 4 0 0 0 7 0
Electrical Engineering (B.S.)
Men 1 0 1 0 3 1 0 0 2 1 0 0 1 0 6 0 0 0 14 2
Women 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 0 0 0 4 0
Engineering Science (B.E.) (B.A.)
Men 0 0 1 1 3 0 0 0 2 0 1 1 0 0 17 2 0 1 24 5
Women 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 4 1 0 0 8 2
Industrial Engineering (B.S.)
Men 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 6 0
Women 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 3 0
Mechanical Engineering (B.S.)
Men 0 0 1 0 3 0 0 0 5 0 2 0 0 0 22 3 3 0 36 3
Women 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 9 0
Totals: 4 0 4 1 21 1 0 0 17 3 8 1 1 0 74 7 4 1 133 14

Undergraduate

Degrees Awarded by Program

Degrees By Ethnicity

Nra - Nonresident aliens
Asi - Asian American
Blk - Black
His - Hispanic
Ind - American Indian
Pac - Pacific Islander
Unk - Unknown
Wht - White
Tot - Program Totals
Two - Two or More
Bachelor's Degree Program(s) Nra Unk His Ind Asi Blk Pac Wht Two Tot Male Female
Computer Engineering (B.S.) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 2 2 0
Computer Science (B.A.) (B.S.) 2 2 3 0 1 1 0 7 1 17 14 3
Electrical Engineering (B.S.) 1 1 1 0 2 0 0 6 0 11 10 1
Engineering Science (B.E.) (B.A.) 0 1 2 0 3 0 0 11 2 19 16 3
Industrial Engineering (B.S.) 1 0 1 0 2 1 0 3 0 8 7 1
Mechanical Engineering (B.S.) 0 2 0 0 0 1 0 13 2 18 17 1
Totals: 4 6 7 0 8 3 0 42 5 75 66 9

Degrees By Ethnicity & Gender

Bachelor's Degree Program(s) Nra Unk His Ind Asi Blk Pac Wht Two Tot
M F M F M F M F M F M F M F M F M F
Computer Engineering (B.S.) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 2
Computer Science (B.A.) (B.S.) 1 1 2 0 2 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 6 1 1 0 17
Electrical Engineering (B.S.) 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 6 0 0 0 11
Engineering Science (B.E.) (B.A.) 0 0 1 0 2 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 9 2 1 1 19
Industrial Engineering (B.S.) 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 2 0 0 1 0 0 3 0 0 0 8
Mechanical Engineering (B.S.) 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 12 1 2 0 18
Totals: 3 1 6 0 5 2 0 0 8 0 2 1 0 0 38 4 4 1 75

Undergraduate

Dual Degrees

Undergraduate Engineering Dual Degree Program Description

Undergraduate Engineering Dual Degrees Awarded

Undergraduate

Program Comparisons

  • ABET - Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology
  • CEAB - Canadian Engineering Accreditation Board
Degree Program ABET/CEAB Accred. Nominal Program Length
(yrs.)
Average Program Length
(yrs.)
Time: Day/Even./
Both
Co-op: None/Opt./
Required
Grads in Co-op Progs.
Computer Engineering (B.S.) no 4.00 4.50 Both None
Computer Science (B.A.) (B.S.) no 4.00 4.50 Both None
Electrical Engineering (B.S.) yes 4.00 4.50 Both None
Engineering Science (B.E.) (B.A.) yes 4.00 4.50 Both None
Industrial Engineering (B.S.) no 4.00 4.00 Both None
Mechanical Engineering (B.S.) yes 4.00 4.50 Both None