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University of Kentucky - 2016

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Engineering Information

Student Projects

Student Design Projects Description

The Reduced Gravity Education Flight Program provides a unique academic experience for undergraduate students and educators to successfully propose, design, fabricate, fly, and evaluate a reduced gravity experiment of their choice over the course of six months. The overall experience includes scientific
research, hands-on experimental design, test operations, and educational/public outreach activities.
To provide students and educators with an outstanding educational opportunity to
explore microgravity.
To attract outstanding young scholars to careers in math, science, and engineering in general.
To introduce young scholars to careers with NASA and in the space program in particular.
To provide a platform for students and educators to understand how microgravity affects research and testing of serious science and engineering ideas.
To provide an opportunity for both the general public and school children to discover educational and professional opportunities available at NASA.

Gato del Sol is the 1982 Kentucky Derby winning thoroughbred and the namesake for our car. Stone Farm, who raised Gato del Sol, has been a longtime supporter of the University of Kentucky Solar Car Team. Gato, meaning cat in Spanish, and Sol, meaning sun in Spanish, is a very fitting name for Wildcats racing on the power of solar energy.

All majors are invited to join. No prior experience necessary.
Electrical Team " Makes the car go
•Integrates the solar array, maximum power point trackers, batteries, and motor controller.
•Sends data from the solar car to chase vehicle’s computer via the telemetry system.
Business " Makes the car possible
•Coordinates sponsorship from generous corporations and individuals
•Manages budget of nearly $500,000
•Plans outreach events and produces media (UK Ch. 50 Videos, Website)

Baja SAE consists of three regional competitions that simulate real-world engineering design projects and their related challenges. Engineering students are tasked to design and build an off-road vehicle that will survive the severe punishment of rough terrain and sometimes even water.

The object of the competition is to provide SAE student members with a challenging project that involves the planning and manufacturing tasks found when introducing a new product to the consumer industrial market. Teams compete against one another to have their design accepted for manufacture by a fictitious firm. Students must function as a team to not only design, build, test, promote, and race a vehicle within the limits of the rules, but also to generate financial support for their project and manage their educational priorities.

All vehicles are powered by a ten-horsepower Intek Model 20 engine donated by Briggs & Stratton Corporation. For over twenty-five years, the generosity of Briggs & Stratton has enabled SAE to provide each team with a dependable engine free of charge. Use of the same engine by all the teams creates a more challenging engineering design test.

A referendum was passed in the 2006 Univ of KY Student Government elections that asked students if they would be willing to pay a fee in order to support the development of renewable energy on campus. This fee currently results in about $150,000 per year in funds that are allocated by the UK Student Sustainability Council to promote sustainability on the UK campus. Working with leaders of this group it was determined that the campus should have some PV installed and engineering students could have a significant part in the design of that system as part of their coursework.

A semester project is assigned each year in the EE/BAE Solar Devices and Systems graduate level class. The objectives of the project are to gain analytical and numerical modeling skills for modeling and designing a photovoltaic system and to understand the integration, installation, performance evaluation, and economic issues related to PV systems. In 2013, the class was divided into four teams that each evaluated potential campus locations for the installation of a small, expandable, solar PV array and then did a complete design and economic analysis for a system installed in that location.

These designs have subsequently been used by the Student Sustainability Council in coordination with the UK Physical Plant to inform the bid documents for the installation of a 112-panel, 14kW system on the roof of the Ralph G. Anderson Engineering Building. The system is to be installed in December 2014 and will be operational for monitoring by classes during the 2015 spring semester.

CE 429, Civil Engineering Systems Design, is the capstone design experience for the Civil Engineering program. Students take this course in their final semester before graduation; it is intended to provide the students a project-based introduction to the planning, assessment, and preliminary design of civil engineering projects.
Currently, the seniors are working with the UK Office of Sustainability to study design options for the Avenue of Champions corridor. With the recent and ongoing construction of residential halls and the new Student Center along this corridor, the potential for pedestrian and vehicle conflicts has increased. The students are challenged to develop and assess alternative scenarios for closing all or portions of the corridor for a pedestrian plaza; design considerations must include traffic impacts, safety improvements, site layout, environmental considerations, construction cost, and others.

The ASABE International 1/4 Scale Tractor Student Design Competition gives students a comprehensive perspective on what it takes to design, build, test and market a product. Each year, universities across the United States and Canada compete for top honors in design and performance categories. Teams are also judged by a panel of industry experts on a written report and an oral presentation. All teams are given a 31 hp Briggs & Stratton engine and a set of Titan tires " the rest is up to them.
The University of Kentucky Wildcat Pulling Team has fielded an entry every year since 1999 and won the competition in 2012, 2014 and 2015. The latest designs have used a custom-tuned continuously variable transmission in series with a 3-speed manual transaxle to maximize power transfer while keeping the tractor safe and easy to drive. The diverse team includes students across multiple departments from the College of Engineering and the College of Agriculture, Food and Environment.

(Sponsor: ASME) " Two groups worked on the powertrain and frame for a human powered vehicle in 2014. The objective of the current work is to make incremental improvements to the prior two teams’ work improving the integration between the frame and powertrain. Additionally, this team will also develop the aero package. A complete assessment of possible failure modes and safety testing is also expected.

(Sponsor: Trane) " Develop a lower cost method to link HVAC dampers together. The linkage rod currently requires a costly milling operation to fit into a purchased bearing and bracket assembly and lever arms. Goals include reducing the cost by 50%, meeting torque requirements, and improving the manufacturability.

(Sponsor: Toyota) " Presses are configured with 2 bolsters to allow one die to be in the press while the other can be staged for floor work or preparation for press work. The bolster indexes in and out of the press creating an open pit condition. People working in the area are familiar with this safety hazard but the hazard still exists. The design team will review the operation, perform a risk assessment to identify all the hazards, and develop countermeasures to minimize the risk of a fall into this open pit area.

(Sponsor: Outdoor Venture Corp.) " Outdoor Venture Corporation is now manufacturing structural insulated panels, branded as the iPanel, which are used as an innovative temporary building material for walls, floors, and roofs of new or renovated structures. The goal is to develop a new product design using the iPanel which will be expandable, mobile, easily assembled, energy efficient, and with the ability to pack and transport in compact form. Applications are numerous and include disaster relief, temporary and workforce housing, mobile medical facilities, and classrooms in rural communities.

(Sponsor: Eaton Corp.) " Develop a test rig to examine active noise control solutions for supercharger tonal noise. A sound power source will be placed into the intake and would produce a signal that would cancel out the tonal noise.

(Sponsor: STEMCO Motor Wheel) " The current method for setting and securing torque on automatic brake adjuster relies on a threaded cap that is welded in place. This requires extra process steps and provides an aesthetically unappealing part appearance. The desired outcome is to develop alternate, cost effective solutions to improve visual appearance of the part while still allowing ability to adjust and lock torque setting of assembled part.

(Sponsor: Department of Mechanical Engineering) " The objective of this project is to develop a mechanism lab for the mechanical engineering lab courses. It is desired that the team develop a demonstration system for four-bar linkages, slider cranks, and quick return mechanisms. It is desired that a) different mechanism types can be considered b) certain key dimensions can be changed for a given mechanism type, c) measurement of translational and angular speeds can be accomplished and d) input angular speed is roughly constant and can be controlled.

(Sponsor: NASA Kentucky Space Grant) " The Kentucky re-entry universal payload system (KRUPS) is a physical proto-flight of an experimental re-entry vehicle that was designed and built by two teams of students at the University of Kentucky. The vehicle is intended as a research platform to gather information and collect data on re-entry flow field and thermal protection system response. This project aims at completing the design of the vehicle and performing the launch qualifications procedures.

(Sponsor: SAE) " Design a safe and robust suspension system for a Formula SAE Vehicle and perform tests on prototype.

(Sponsor: Lexmark) " Develop automated machine that is capable of testing how effectively the toner is adhered to the printed page. The machine must perform the test and quantify the results automatically.

(Sponsor: Commercial Vehicle Group) " Develop a test sensor to be used for vibration and shaker table testing of seats.

(Sponsor: Trane) " Research and develop an automated material handling system for moving material throughout the manufacturing floor.

(Sponsor: Dr. Jose Grana) Develop test fixture to measure/verify flowrates and air ingestion of various compartment designs.

(Sponsor: NASA Kentucky Space Grant) " The Kentucky re-entry universal payload system (KRUPS) is a physical proto-flight of an experimental re-entry vehicle that was designed and built by two teams of students at the University of Kentucky. The vehicle is intended as a research platform to gather information and collect data on re-entry flow field and thermal protection system response. This project aims at completing the design of an interface between the vehicle an Exo-brake that will accelerate re-entry and improve landing accuracy.

(Sponsor: Dr. Michael Winter) " Design and build various structures for confinement and plasma generation.

(Sponsor: Dr. Eric Higgins) " Two teams are working on the design and development of various tools and devices to improve the efficiency and reduce the cost of cataract surgery. The goal is to have low cost tools that could be used in third-world countries that require smaller incisions to aid in the patient recover time.

(Sponsor " UK Solar Car Team) " Develop a dynamometer to characterize the motor performance of the Solar Car. The dynamometer will quantify both the motor power output and regenerative braking characteristics of the Solar Car.

The concept of expanding our scientific capabilities on Mars brings about many complicated and rewarding challenges. One aspect of great interest is the terrain of the Martian surface. Excavating and analyzing Martian terrain is not a new concept but NASA is interested in mining on the Martian surface in a much larger scale. A complete and portable mining robot is desired to carry out this task. This type of robot could be used to help support a self sufficient base on Mars.

NASA’s Robotic Mining Competition wants college engineers to design and build a mining robot that can traverse Martian terrain (The competition itself will use the simulated chaotic terrain), excavate Martian regolith and ice simulant, and deposit it in a central location within a limited time frame. The robot should be as lightweight, efficient, and autonomous as possible.

The University of Kentucky ECE Senior Design Team intends to build its first robot participating in NASA’s competition at the end of the school year in Florida.

Cost is one of the heaviest constraints in both historical and modern electrical engineering. Engineers have limited ability when working with expensive material and large-scale projects. On the other hand, electrical energy uses have exponentially increased in the last half-century, which brings to the surface global warming issues and resource availability. In terms of electrical engineering and the concern for end-users, this creates an even higher demand for relative cost and renewable energy design. Fortunately, the need for this project falls into both categories. A net-zero structure is needed for one of the University of Kentucky parking structures. The term “net-zero” refers to the cost of electrical power (kilowatt-hours) supplied being equal to the cost of power consumed by the load of the structure over a one-year time period. With several options for design and renewable energy, accessibility, safety, and excess power consumption become additional needs. Engineering students and maintenance department need access to view modern electrical systems for education and upkeep for the system, respectively. Safety is always a need of the end-users, which in this case, are those who park in the structures and come within proximity of the power system. Excess power consumption needs to be safely supplied back to the main power grid to further save money and create reliability.

The main objective as stated from the customer of the project is to determine the feasibility, design, and cost of equipping a UK parking garage with a net-zero, solar photovoltaic array. The array will deliver a power equal to the annual consumption of the chosen garage back into the university’s power grid. The array must be seamlessly integrated and located as conveniently as possible allowing for periodic maintenance and observation. In addition to the main objectives, ethical and safety codes, provided by the National Electric Code (NEC), must be met per the University’s requirements. A fully developed return-on-investment must also be considered with the design of this array.

The need for this project is to redesign the electrical power system (EPS) for the University of Kentucky’s KSAT satellite. The satellite is capable of attitude determination and control, and has payload-processing capabilities, but requires an EPS rework. The system should efficiently convert solar energy into electrical energy via photovoltaic cells. By doing this, it will allow power to be stored and distributed throughout the spacecraft efficiently. Overall, a working power supply is needed for the satellite to launch.

The objective of this project is to design and build a new EPS to fit the satellite, which safely and reliably supplies power to it. To do this, optimal solar cell arrangement must be found, the EPS must be tested with actual satellite subsystems, and software to control the EPS must be written. The goal is for the satellite to be launch-ready in early to mid 2016 once the power supply is functioning properly. The main data that we want to obtain from the satellite once it launches is to see what the attitude is and to see how the attitude changes over time. The attitude comes directly from the cameras on the satellite, which is how we will obtain the data that we want to know. The EPS must intake, store, and supply the power necessary to achieve this.

Based on 2010 data from the U.S. Department of Energy, the buildings sector alone in the United States accounts for 7% of global primary energy consumption. This electric load results in a tremendous amount of dedicated base load generation from fossil ¬based generation sources, and consequently the United States was responsible for the emission of about 5.5 million metric tons of CO2 in 2013. The challenge is to reduce the energy demand of our structures that is currently being supplied by the utility grid.

At the University of Kentucky, there are eight parking garages with a combined 7,500 parking spaces. These garages are largely operating with simplistic lighting schemes and inefficient lighting fixtures. Consequently, they are highly wasteful and expensive while providing no added benefit to the user. Most importantly, none of these eight garages provide any form of power generation, yet they rise well above their surroundings and collect unobstructed sunlight.

To date, UK has invested in three photovoltaic installations on campus, and the business case improves with each subsequent project. PV provides an excellent source of on¬site power generation, and a parking garage provides potentially the most surface area and easiest installation process of any structure on campus.

A net¬-zero parking garage at UK will have a payback period well below the equipment warranty, diversify the campus energy portfolio, and raise sustainability awareness throughout the community. By constructing a net-¬zero parking garage, the University of Kentucky will both achieve and promote the reduction of campus energy consumption.

There are two primary overall objectives and a host of benefits that result from achieving them. The objectives are simply 1) to reduce energy consumption as much as reasonably possible for a parking garage, and 2) to offset energy consumption via local power generation. A specific parking garage has not yet been identified by UK, therefore the first task will be determining which parking garage to target.

Upon selecting the optimal parking garage, a new, efficient lighting scheme will be developed. Then a PV system will be designed in order for the garage to be “Net-Zero.” A Net¬Zero Parking Garage must produce as much, or more, energy as it consumes over the course of one year. This generation is typically achieved using a photovoltaic solar panel installation. The solar PV system must follow all national and local standards, codes, and regulations. The system will also be reliable, safe, and low¬ maintenance.

As outlined in the provided project description, “the [solar PV system] design proposal will include basic structural elements, solar PV equipment selection, any necessary control sequences, simple visual renderings, and a one¬line diagram of the DC and AC components of the system, including utilization of proper electrical codes, safety codes, and technologies.” A thorough cost¬benefit analysis will also be conducted in order to describe the financial feasibility and benefit to the University for installing the PV system.

The College of Engineering currently has a 30kW PV (photovoltaic) array on the top of the Ralph G. Anderson Building (RGAN). The Physical Plant Division (PPD) is currently planning to increase the solar energy production to 60 kW, which increases the building efficiency and lowers energy costs. PPD has requested that at least 3 10kW+ arrays be proposed for various locations in the College of Engineering. In order to decide which plan to select, a return on investment (ROI) is needed on each plan. These solar cells will enable the College of Engineering to reduce their carbon footprint and energy costs, while improving their public image.

The primary objective of this project is to design three separate solar installations and recommend the best installation to the PPD. This installation will be chosen based on the ROI and the performance of equipment. The group will decide on the best course of action for mounting the panels and the location of the panels. All three of the proposals will meet all electrical and safety codes in order to pass inspection. Several factors will be considered when determining the bestROI of each design. For example, using a Gallium Arsenide solar cell will be more efficient than a Silicon solar cell, but will be more expensive. Available space for the panels will influence the installation location selection. Location selection will also be determined by the ease of accessing the power room in each building, as the energy harvested from the installed solar panels will be directed to the power room.

The UK solar car team designs and builds many printed circuit boards (PCB’s), which contain surface mount devices. These devices must be soldered to the board to establish connections to contact pads. Currently, the team solders the surface mounted devices in small sections using a spot treatment of solder paste and a hot air tool. The process is very time consuming and not very efficient due to requiring a lot of manual labor. The solar car team desires to eliminate all labor and speed up the process tremendously by soldering multiple devices to the board at once using a reflow oven. A reflow oven is a machine which subjects the PCB to multiple heating and cooling stages to effectively solder the surface mounted devices. Not surprisingly, reflow ovens can cost thousands of dollars. It is crucial to utilize the resources and $300 provided by the solar car team to create a functional, affordable product within budget. A dependable reflow oven at this price point could be marketable to other electronic hobbyists looking for efficient, cost saving ways to solder their won PCB’s.

The goal of the project is to design and build a functioning reflow oven prototype for the solar car team. The reflow oven will be standalone, in other words, the machine will be preprogrammed and not require the additional hookup of a PC. These pre-installed programs will consist of various heating profiles based on the type of solder paste being used (lead/lead free). Certain heating profiles will be required due to the unique melting points of the paste and their specific cool down rates. The oven will have a user interface where these distinct heating profiles can be selected, and also at any time, allow the user to alter heating profiles based on temperature and time duration. The solar car team’s biggest PCB to date is 3.5” X 6”, therefore the oven will be able to house a PCB of at least this size at minimum. The ability of the reflow oven to house an even larger PCB will expand the solar car team’s future fabrication ability.

In the era of “green” technology, great progress is being made to improve the sustainability and efficiency of using renewable energy sources. Almost all renewable energy systems (wind turbines, hydroelectric, photovoltaic, etc) rely on rechargeable batteries for energy storage. This energy storage is critical for providing energy when the source is not actively producing power (ex. nighttime with solar cells) and storing excess energy when there is an abundance (ex. daytime with solar cells). The Solar Car Team at the University of Kentucky, likewise, stores energy for use in a rechargeable battery pack. With most battery storage systems, knowing the battery’s “State of Charge” (SoC) is crucial in maximizing the use of this stored energy. Though commercial devices exist for this purpose, they are not well suited for use on the UK solar car. To accurately determine the SoC of the solar car’s batteries, a continuous measurement of the battery input/output current is required. A device that measures and records this input/output current and communicates to the solar car’s data collection system would allow the team to determine the SoC. This will enable the solar car team to accurately predict optimal driving speed, how much further the car can be driven, how much time is required to fully charge the car, and how efficiently power from the solar panel is being converted to mechanical power. This device will be very useful to the team’s operations and could find use with other solar car teams or renewable energy systems.

The objective of this project is to design, build, test, and implement a device which will accurately measure the input/output battery pack current on the UK solar car. The device will communicate with the existing data collection and communication protocol on the solar car and provide information regarding this measured current (namely, the device will perform a live integration of the measured current). The device will also receive data from the data collection system for use in calculations as the solar car team sees fit. Additionally, the device will provide live streaming data through a USB interface for the team to use during testing and troubleshooting. Finally, the device will be designed to meet physical and operational requirements such as physical size, electrical isolation, and power dissipation.


The College of Engineering wishes to create a program that incoming engineering freshmen will take for their first two semesters that will acquaint the students with engineering skills that will serve them through their college career and on. One of the most important of these common skills is teamwork. Another skill that is becoming considered absolutely vital is a familiarity in programming. In order to service these needs, beginning next year the College of Engineering will implement a common engineering experience that will acquaint the students with computer and hardware basics. To demonstrate and solidify what they’ve learned in class the College of Engineering needs a well¬-designed final project that will allow the students to demonstrate their skills in a creative way through the use of an embedded computing system. The College of Engineering needs to know what embedded environment would be best suited for the class and a final project to cap everything off.

The objective of this project is to create a hands¬-on design project as part of a new common freshman experience that will start in the Fall of 2016. The goal is to lay the groundwork and evaluate the infrastructure necessary for the College of Engineering design project they will try to complete. A central part of this plan is to develop a “hands-on” design project where these students will use computing technology to design, and develop a system. These systems will be the core of the project itself while other engineering disciplines will be used to support and integrate the system into the final design. These students will be working in a team environment for the majority of the school year learning to work together and build up their technical knowledge so that they will have enough resources to be able to complete the final design project.

Laboratory work is a critical element for all students training to become engineers. It provides the hands on experience that engineering students need to be prepared to work in their field of study. At the University of Kentucky, there are many of these laboratories. Most of the components of the laboratories at the University of Kentucky mimic the equipment that students will encounter when they transition from the educational aspect to professional aspect of their careers; however, there are a few components that need updating. Of the few components that need updating, Dr. Chad Wedding of the Civil Engineering department has made a formal request for a solution team.

Dr. Wedding uses one of the University of Kentucky’s laboratories to teach mining engineering students about network analysis. There has been a ventilation network in place in this laboratory for over fifteen years, but it has become too outdated and too difficult to maintain for continued relevance in Dr. Wedding’s teaching curriculum. Dr. Wedding, therefore, needs the solution team of his choosing to use modern technological capabilities to redesign the ventilation network so that it is useful in teaching students how to monitor and adjust atmospheric conditions within a simulated mine network.

To meet Dr. Wedding’s needs for the ventilation network, embedded sensors will be employed that monitor conditions and report them to a central PC. The desired conditions to be monitored are air velocity, temperature, pressure, and gas concentration. A hot wire anemometer circuit for air velocity and interfaces for temperature, pressure, and CO2 concentration are needed. The air velocity circuit of the network needs to be designed by the solution team, while the other three sensory elements are available for off of the shelf purchase. This anemometer circuit needs to be designed and implemented on a custom shield, involving PCB layout and finding a suitable board manufacturer. This anemometer circuit needs to communicate with a stepper circuit to control iris dampers so that the air velocity is 2.5m/s under normal conditions. In addition to status information being measured and reported to a central PC, Dr. Wedding needs the network model to be equipped with a touch screen interface so that the user can make adjustments to return the air to normal conditions.

The goal of this project is to build an aerial mapping drone. The team will develop a fixed wing and/or multi-rotor UAV, sensors for imaging and mapping the terrain, and ground station infrastructure as necessary to support the airborne assets.

Currently there are a multitude of guitar multi-effect pedals on the market, which aggregate a diverse range of effects into a single pedal. These pedals work almost exclusively through a Digital Signal Processor, or DSP. Although some effects such as delays can be implemented cheaply and effectively using a DSP, others such as distortion and overdrive yield inferior tone when created digitally as opposed to through traditional analog circuitry. There are currently no popular multi-effect pedals on the market that implement both analog and digital circuitry to achieve the best possible tone for the entire range of effects provided.

Additionally the user interfaces for these pedals are generally unintuitive and confusing for the user. The only displays on the pedals are very small screens or 7-segment displays. The purposes of the buttons on the pedals are also confusing as they are often unlabeled or have multiple functions. This forces the user to frequently reference the manual to get the full functionality out of the pedal, creating a frustrating user experience. With the rapid adoption of smartphones and tablet devices, users are accustomed to simple and intuitive user interfaces, which modern guitar multi-effect pedals fail to deliver.

The team’s approach to this problem is to create a Hybrid guitar effect pedal that has an LCD screen to aid to the ease of use and functionality of the guitar. The guitar pedal will have many effects and functions including but not limited to: distortion, overdrive, delay, chorus, flanger, compression, arpeggiation, auto-wah, and a tuner. This pedal will have a range of effects, be easy to use and be at a relatively low cost to produce.

The University of Kentucky’s Solar Car Team is constantly upgrading equipment associated with their solar car, Gato Del Sol V. One element of upgrades for the solar car is new circuit boards. These circuit boards are highly integrated and use surface-mount devices that are added onto the circuit board by soldering them into place. This soldering process is best completed in a Solder Reflow Oven. The solar car team believes that it would be very beneficial for them to have a custom designed solder reflow oven, with multiple options for different types of circuit boards and solder.

The objective of this project is to design and build a custom solder reflow oven. This oven will have multiple thermocouples, which will be used to monitor the temperature of the oven at different locations. The thermocouples will feed temperature data to several different circuits in our system design. Having multiple heat sensors within the oven enclosure will enable us to ensure that the heat is evenly distributed throughout. The sensors will be constantly checking for faulty conditions, such as overheating. And if an overheating event were to occur, safety circuitry would send the system into an emergency shutdown state, in which all power is shut off. The primary function of the emergency shutdown state will be to protect the operators from injury, and secondary to safety, will be preventing critical damage to the oven itself.

We intend to design the oven for the use of lead and lead free solder, which require different ramp up and cool down temperature profiles. In addition to this, we intend to implement programming that will enable the oven to be used with different variations of circuit boards. This custom design and build will cut the cost of buying a reflow oven, and will be designed specifically for the solar car team’s needs.

Product placement is everything. If the consumer doesn’t see it, advertising efforts are wasted. Traditional print ads are durable and distributable but can be too detailed and easily overlooked, not to mention a waste of paper. A product designed such that it would attract customer attention significantly better than other advertising mediums would have a very high market demand. With lower cost and power consumption, this product would have a solid foothold in an already niche market.
The team will design a device that allows the user to market a chosen message, image, or logo to a consumer base in an artistic, eye catching manner. An intuitive control interface will allow the user to easily reprogram the displayed image, produced by a rotating ring of Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) acting as pixels. Relying on the persistence of vision (POV) technique, control hardware will modulate the LEDs to create a smooth, spherical display surface. The ease of use, level of customization and effectiveness will make it a superior advertising tool.